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2021成人高考高起点《英语》复习资料总结汇总

作者:子曰 日期:2021/5/6 17:30:54 出处:山东成考信息网 访问次数:

可数名词与不可数名词

  名词分可数与不可数两种。

  可数名词表示某类人或东西中的个体。如table, country。

  或表示若干个体组成的集合体。如 family, people, committee, police。

  不可数名词表示无法分为个体的实物。如air, tea, furniture, water。

  或表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念。如work, information, advice, happiness。

  有些名词在一种场合下是可数名词,在另一种场合下是不可数名词。

  如room 房间(可数),空间(不可数)

  time 时间(不可数),次数(可数)

  fish 鱼(不可数),各种各样的鱼(可数)

  比较下列例句:

  There are nine rooms in the house. (房间,可数名词)

  There isnt enough room for us three in the car . (空间,不可数名词)

  不可数名词的数量可以通过在其前面加单位词来表示。

  如: 一块肉 a piece of meat

  两条长面包 two loaves of bread

  三件家具 three articles of furniture

  一大笔钱 a large sum of money


  可数名词的复数形式

  可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。名词复数的构成如下:

  1.一般情况下在名词后加-s。如:girls, books。

  ★浊辅音、元音结尾,s发[z]

  2.以s, x , ch, sh结尾的词在名词后加-es。如:glasses, boxes, matches, bushes。

  ★以s, x , ch, sh结尾,es发[iz]

  3.“辅音字母+y”结尾的词,变y为i再加-es。如:city-cities, country-countries。

  4.以o结尾的词多数加-es。如:heroes, tomatoes, potatoes。

  radios, zoos, photos, pianos, kilos 例外。

  5.f, fe 结尾的词,多数变f,fe为v再加-es。如:thief-thieves, leaf-leaves, half-halves, life-lives, wife-wives, knife-knives。

  少数名词有不规则的复数形式。如:man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, child-children, mouse-mice。

  ★可数名词复数一般情况下考不规则复数形式。

  个别名词的单数和复数的形式是一样的。如Chineses, Japanese, sheep, deer。


名词的所有格

  名词的所有格表示所属关系, 起形容词的作用。

  当名词表示有生命的东西时,所有格一般是在词尾加 s 。

  如:Jeans room, my daughter-in-laws friends, my daughters-in-laws friends, childrens books。

  如果名词已经有了复数词尾s, 则只需加。如:the teachers books, my parents car。

  时间名词的所有格在后面加s ,复数加 。如:todays newspaper, five minutes walk。

  当名词表示无生命的东西时,所有格常由“of”短语构成。

  如:the top of the world, the cover of the book, Chinas capital。

  加 s 或 的名词所有格可以表示店铺或某人的家。

  如:the grocers, the tailors, the Smiths 。

  ★名词所有格考试常见部分是

  名词表示没有生命的东西时,不能直接在其后加s。

  时间名词所有格在其后加s,或复数名词后直接加。


名词在句子中的作用:名词在句子中可以作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、表语、定语,有时可以作状语。

  名词、代词或其他结构作主语时,谓语动词在人称和数上必须与主语保持一致。

  1.主语是可数名词单数时,谓语动词用单数形式;主语是复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。

  All roads lead to Rome。(条条大路通罗马。)

  His brother is an industrial engineer。

  The number of the students attending the party is increasing。

  ★the number of 表示数量,无论后面名词是复数还是单数,谓语动词是单数形式。

  Two-thirds of the shop belongs to me。

  ★two-thirds 三分之二

  几分之几作主语,谓语是单数形式。

  belong to 属于某人

  Both of us are studying English。

  ★总结:在名词作主语时,the number of 谓语动词单数形式;

  几分之几,谓语单数形式;

  both 谓语使用复数形式。

  2、主语是不可数名词、不定式或动名词词组、从句时,谓语动词用单数形式。

  All the money he received was given to his mother。

  Forgetting the past means betrayal。

  What we are talking now is useless。

  3.主语部分若有as well as, with, together with, like, but, except等短语,谓语动词的单、复数与短语前面的名词一致。

  Mary, as well as her two sisters, is a student of this school。

  (as well as her two sisters 作主语Mary的主语补足语,主语 Mary 是单数,所以谓语动词用复数形式)

  No one except my friends knows anything about it。

  4.表示时间、距离、重量、价值等的复数名词作主语时,如果当作整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式。“…+(×)…=…”算式中的谓语动词也用单数形式。

  Three times two is six。

  Three kilometers is 3,ooo metres. (three kilometers作为整体来看)

  5.Either, neither作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

  Neither of us has been to Italy。

  Has either of them been to Shanghai?

  none代表可数的人或东西时,谓语动词可以用单数也可以用复数,代表不可数的东西时,谓语动词用单数形式。

  None of the students have/has seen the film。

  None of the money belongs to me。

  6.主语由either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also连接时,谓语形式由最邻近的主语决定。

  Not only you but also I am wrong。

  Neither my aunt nor I am going out this afternoon。

  Either you or she is to do the work。

  7.主语中有and,如果表示单一概念,谓语动词用单数。

  The bread and butter is nice。

  8.主语前有many a, more than one修饰时,谓语动词用单数形式。

  Many a book has been read by the students。

  ★many a book=many books

  More than one person has been to the Great Wall。

  9.集合名词作主语,当作整体看待时,谓语动词用单数形式,当作每个独立的个体看待时,谓语动词用复数。

  The committee meets once a year. (作为整体)

  The committee are having a meeting now. (作为独立个体)

  People, police作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

  The police have come to arrest him。


 不定冠词的基本用法

  1.表示“一”的含义。

  Give me a pen please。

  We go shopping twice a week。

  2.泛指某个人或东西。

  Yesterday we visited an English secondary school。

  She picked up a magazine and began to read。

  3.表示一类人或东西。

  He works as a language teacher in that university。

  As a writer, he is successful。

  Even a child can answer this question。

  可数名词单数出现,泛指用不定冠词,特指用定冠词。一个可数名词的单数不能自己单独出现


定冠词的基本用法

  1.表示特定的人或东西。

  Give me the magazine。

  Have you decided on the prices yet?

  The book on the table is an English dictionary。

  Beijing is the capital of China。

  2.复述前文提到的人或东西。

  Last week, I saw a flim. The film is about a love story between two middle-aged people。

  The old man saw a house in the field. He went into the house and found a beautiful girl sitting there and singing。

  3.用于形容词前面,代表一类人或东西。

  the poor 穷人 the rich 富人 the wounded 受伤的人

  the sick 生病的人 the beautiful 美丽的事物 the old 老年人

  the young 年青人

  4.用于表示世界上独一无二的东西的名词前面。

  the moon, the sun, the earth

  The moon moves aroud the earth。

  We have friends all over the world。

  Dont build castles in the air。

  5.用于序数词、方位名词、形容词与副词的最高级前面,副词最高级前面的the 可以省略。

  January is the first month of the year。

  The sun rises in the east。

  Japan lies to the east of China。

  Beijing lies in the north of China。

  Ireland lies on the Great Britain。

  At the Childrens Palace, some children learn to play the piano, others learn to play the violin。

  Last week we went to the theatre。

  Among the three girls she speaks English the best。

  “东、南、西、北”作副词时,前面不加冠词。

  We are walking south。

  形容词最高级前若有物主代词,就不加定冠词。

  Monday is my busiest day。

  6.用于姓氏的复数形式前,表示一家人或夫妇俩。

  The Lius have moved to Guangzhou。

  The Simths came to China for visit in 1996.

  7.不可数名词前面通常不加定冠词,但若有限制性定语修饰,或表示特定部分、特定内容时,前面需加定冠词。

  Drink some water。

  Is the water in the well fit for drink?

  What do you think of the music?

  He cant take the advice his mother gives him。


absent from不在,缺席abundant in富于

  alien to与……相反angry with sb at/about sth生气,愤怒

  anxious about/for忧虑,担心appropriate for/to适当,合适

  applicable to适用于apt at聪明,善于

  apt to易于ashamed of羞愧,害臊

  approximate to近拟,接近aware of意识到

  abailable to sb for sth可用,可供bare of几乎没有,缺乏

  bound for开往…… capable of能够

  careful of/about/with;小心,注意certain of /about确信,肯定

  about/in doing characteristic of特有,独特

  clear of没有,不接触clever at善于

  close to接近,亲近comparable to/with可比较

  conscious of察觉到,意识到consequent on随之而来

  considerate towards体谅,体贴contemporary with与……同时代

  content with满足于contrary to违反

  counter to与……相反crazy about热衷,着迷

  critical of挑剔,批评curious about好奇,想知道

  distinct from种类(风格)不同doubtful of /about怀疑

  east of在……东面equal to相等,胜任

  equivalent to等于,相当于essential to/for必不可少

  expert at/in/on善于faithful to忠实于

  familiar to sb为……所熟悉familiar with sth熟悉,通晓

  fatal to致命的favourable to支持,赞成

  favourable for有帮助的fearful of惧怕

  fit for适于foreign to非……所原有

  fond of喜欢free of /from未受……;免费

  free with康慨,大方guilty of有……罪的

  hungry for渴望ignorant of不知道

  impatient at sth.不耐烦impatient of无法容忍

  with sb independent of不受……支配

  impatient for急切,渴望indifferent to无兴趣,不关心

  indignant with sb.愤慨inferior to级别低于,不如

  ab/about sth innocent of无……罪,无辜

  intent on专心于invisible to不可见的jealous of嫉妒keep on爱好,很喜欢

  liable for对……有责任liable to易于

  loyal to忠于mad at/with sb.生气,愤怒mad with因……发狂next to下一个,其次

  necessary to /for必要的opposite to在对面

  open to不限制,开放的particular about挑剔,讲究

  arallel to与……平等,类似peculiar to独特的,独有的

  atient with有耐心prior to在……之前

  opular with受……喜爱,爱戴representative of代表……的

  relative to与……有关rich in富于

  responsible for负责,是……原因sensitive to对……敏感

  sensible of觉查到sick of厌恶,厌倦

  short of缺少skilled at /in善于

  similar to相似sufficient for足够的

  subject to受制于,易于superior to优于,级别高于

  suitable for/to适合于suspicious of怀疑

  sure of /about对……有信心,确信typical of是典型的,特有的

  tired of对……不在感兴趣votal to对……关系重大

  uncertain of /about不确知mad about/on狂热迷恋

  void of没有,缺乏

这里用to man 而不用by.即当单数又无冠词的man和known搭配时,表示人类不用by.

  this,that,tomorrow,yesterday,next,last,one

  接年、月、季、星期、周,介词省略已习惯

  例;一天one day (不说on one day)

  one summer 在一个夏天

  one year 一年

  Iast nieht 昨天夜里

  last Friday 上个星期五

  last month 上月

  last year 去年

  yesterday afternoon 昨天下午

  tomorrow afternoon 明天下午

  tomorrow evening 明天晚上

  next month 下个月

  next week 下周

  next year 明年

  next Saturday 下星期六

Nobody was late except me.

  除我以外,没人迟到。

  同类比较except,加for 异类记心间。

  He's composition is good,except for some spelling mistakes.

  他的这篇作文写得很好,只是有几处拼写错误。(非同类比较用except for)

  She was all alone in the world except for an old aunt.

  除了有一个老姑妈,她别无亲人。

  Anna felt disappointed when she found out they had gone swimming without her. (without=except)

  当安娜发现除她外,他们都去游泳了,她感到很失望。

  Lion Head Hill is not worth seeing except for its old temples.

  除了那些古寺以外,狮头山没什么可看的。

  Among other things,we are interested in drawing.

  我们对图画和别的一些东西很感兴趣。(among之内即包括在内)

  原状because of,owing to,due to 表语形容词

  例:Owing to our joint efforts, the task was fulfilled ahead of schedule.

  由于我们的共同努力,任务提前完成了。

  注:Owing to 和because of 都做原因状语,而due to 只能做表语形容词。所以此句。owing to 的介词短语做原因状语。

  AII our achievements are due to the correct leadership of our Party.

  我们的一切成绩都归功于党。(due to 做表语形容词)

  under后接修、建中,of,from 物化分

  例:The road is under repair now.

  这条路正在修建中。

高频句型:

  1. Those urban planners who are blind to this point will pay a heavy price,which they cannot afford it.

  那些城市的规划者们如果忽视这一点,将会付出他们无法承受的代价。

  2. There is a growing tendency these days for many people who live in rural areas to come into and work in city. This problem has caused wide public concern in most cities all over the world.

  农民进城打工正成为增长的趋势,这一问题在世界上大部分城市已引起普遍关注。

  3. An investigation shows that many emigrants think that working at city provide them with not only a higher salary but also the opportunity of learning new skills.

  一项调查显示许多民工认为在城市打工不仅有较高的收入,而且能学到一些新技术。

  4. It must be noted that improvement in agriculture seems to not be able to catch up with the increase in population of rural areas and there are millions of peasants who still live a miserable life and have to face the dangers of exposure and starvation.

  必须指出,农业的发展似乎赶不上农村人口的增加,并且仍有成千上万的农民过着缺衣挨饿的贫寒生活。

  5. Although rural emigrants contribute greatly to the economic growth of the cities,they may inevitably bring about many negative impacts.

  尽管民工对城市的经济发展做出了巨大贡献,然而他们也不可避免的带来了一些负面影响。

  6. Many sociologists point out that rural emigrants are putting pressure on population control and social order; that they are threatening to take already scarce city jobs;and that they have worsened traffic and public health problems.

  许多社会学家指出民工正给人口控制和社会治安带来压力。他们正在威胁着本已萧条的工作市场,他们恶化了交通和公共卫生状况。

  7. It is suggested that governments ought to make efforts to reduce the increasing gap between cities and countryside. They ought to set aside an appropriate fund for improvement of the standard of peasants' lives. They ought to invite some experts in agriculture to share their experiences,information and knowledge with peasants,which will contribute directly to the economic growth of rural areas.

  建议政府应该努力减少正在拉大的城乡差距。应该划拨适当的资金提高农民的生活水平;应该邀请农业专家向农民介绍他们的经验,知识和信息,这些将有助于发展农村经济。

  8. In conclusion,we must take into account this problem rationally and place more emphases on peasants' lives. Any government that is blind to this point will pay a heavy price.

  总之,我们应理智考虑这一问题,重视农民的生活。任何政府忽视这一点都将付出巨大的代价。

  9 Although many experts from universities and institutes consistently maintain that it is an inevitable part of an independent life,parents in growing numbers are starting to realize that people,including teachers and experts in education,should pay considerable attention to this problem.

  尽管来自高校和研究院的许多专家坚持认为这是独立生活不可避免的一部分,然而越来越多的家长开始意识到包括教师和教育专家在内的人们应该认真对待这一问题。

  10. As for me,it is essential to know,at first,what kind of problems young students possible would encounter on campus.

  我认为,首先应看看学生们在校园可能遇到哪些问题

关键句型:

  1、It作先行主语和先行宾语的一些句型

  She had said what it was necessary to say.

  2、强调句型

  It is not who rules us that is important,but how he rules us.

  3、“All+抽象名词”或“抽象名词+itself”(very+形容词)

  He was all gentleness to her.

  4、利用词汇重复表示强调

  A crime is a crime a crime.

  5、“something(much)of”和“nothing(little)of” “something of”相当于“to some extent”,表示程度。 在疑问句或条件从句中,则为“anything of ”,可译为“有点”,“略微”等。译为“毫无”,“全无”。much of译为“大有”,not much of可译为“算不上”,“称不上”,little of可译为“几乎无”,something like译为“有点像,略似”。

  They say that he had no university education,but he seems to be something of a scholar.

  6、同格名词修饰 是指of前后的两个名词都指同一个人或物,“of”以及它前面的名词构成一个形容词短语,以修饰“of”后面的那个名词。如“her old sharper of a father”,可译为:“她那骗子般的父亲”。

  Those pigs of girls eat so much.

  7、as…as…can(may)be

  It is as plain as plain can be.

  8、“It is in(with)…as in(with)”

  It is in life as in a journey.

  9、“as good as…”相等于,就像,几乎如;实际上,其实,实在。

  The merchant as good as promised the orphan boy,that he would adopt him.

  10、“many as well…as”和“might as well …as” “many as well…as” 可译为“与其……,不如……,更好”,“以这样做……为宜”,“如同……,也可以……”等等。“might as well …as”表示不可能的事,可译为“犹如……”,“可与……一样荒唐”,“与其那样不如这样的好”等等。

  One may as well not know a thing at all as know it imperfectly.


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